PRITUR Market â€“ aggregate of people who as individuals or organizations have needs or services and who have the ability, willingness and authority to purchase such products Marketing â€“ is all about finding out what guests wants and needs are, then providing them at a reasonable cost and profit. Sales- is an important part of marketing. Difference between marketing and sales. Marketing focuses on the guests Sales it focuses on products Environmental analysis â€“ means studying the economic social, political and technological influences that could affect the hospitality business. Focuses on: 1.Economic impact â€“ should not be underestimated. 2. Social analysis â€“ demographic is a part of social analysis and this is the profile of society includes: Age, sex, household, income, family size, occupation, religion, race and nationality. 3. Political analysis â€“ the political analysis will affect the hospitality in a number of ways like: employment registration, minimum wage, health care, taxes on the benefit package, tax deduction, and no smoking laws. 4. Technological analysis â€“ to make work faster and easier. 5. Competitor analysis â€“ analysing the strength and weakness of your competitor. Marketing process: 1.Market planning â€“ it is the planning process that yields the decision on a business unit can best compete in the market. 2. Market assessment â€“ to determine if there is a need for a product or service in the market encloses its potential. 3. Market demand â€“ 4. Competitive analysis â€“ assessment the strength and weakness of the company. 5. Positioning â€“ to occupy a specific place or position to the target market. 6. Market goals or objectives â€“ an objective must be planned for each goal. Any form of a business has its own goal. 7. Marketing Needs â€“ is the combination of elements that you will use to market your product.The four P`s of marketing: 1. The place â€“ location. 2. The product â€“ the needs and wants of the target market. 3. The promotion â€“ it include the technique for communicating the products. Advertising â€“ is any form of paid or non personal communication used by an identified sponsor to persuade or to inform certain audience about a product. Form of advertising: 1. Personal selling â€“ form of sales. 2. Sales promotion â€“ include offering inducements to buyers. 3. Public relation â€“ include all communication aimed at increasing goodwill in the user communities. Publicity â€“ is the organization communication with the public. * Packaging â€“ is when organization combines two or more items or activities. * Programming â€“ a complete program of events is planned. 4. People â€“ are the important part of marketing mix. this is considered to be the key service component of the tourism industry. 8. Action Plan â€“ it creates action plan based on the 4 P`s. 9. Performance evaluation â€“ evaluating actual operations against expected performance is an ongoing process and lets an organization how well it has done compared with how well it said it would to. budget vs. Actual expenses, investigate variants, take corrective actions. Market segmentation â€“ is the marketing process of dividing a market into distinct subsets that behave in the same way or have similar needs. 1. Business to business â€“ involves selling of product with other agencies. 2. Business to consumer â€“ involves the selling of product directly to the costumer. Niche market â€“ also called as specialty market is can be categorized as a consumer or industrialized market.
â€œBehind any conflict, whether it is in Northern Ireland, the Balkans, Sudan, genocide in Rwanda, apartheid in South Africa, problems in the Middle East between Israel and Palestine, you are sure to find racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia or a related intolerance. Without dealing with this frankly and honestly we cannot ever hope to achieve total respect for human rightsâ€ (Vorster, 2002). For centuries, countries have to deal with racial conflict. The growing problem of racial discrimination caught the public attention during the German Nazi campaign to eliminate the Jews during the Second World War. There is more to the idea of cultural preservation that is contained in the element of racism. The Germans find a scapegoat in the Jews as its solution to the countryâ€™s internal woes. Self-protection is the primary method being employed in establishing the answers to the questions of the greater population. In an economic crisis, people want solutions to the difficult plight that they are in. The government is just too willing to hand over to them the twisted truth of the matter on hand. The historical accounts that spark the Second World War continue to linger on today. Situations that happen in the Balkans and the Middle East are results of an enduring hatred fueled from Germanyâ€™s Nazism. Ethnic conflicts still exist in many parts of the world. But the enduring difficulties in Africa have kept the entire globe glued on the ongoing tussles of violence and instability. Respect for human rights is a thing of the past in the poor continent. People are slaughtered. There is neglect on the value of life. Cultural differences have led the world to useless wars. Individuals have this mindset of protecting their own traditions, beliefs and interests. They view other people outside their clan as serious threats in the continuity of their way of life. â€œA somewhat vague psychological concept describing a personâ€™s disposition to fear (or abhor) other persons or groups perceived as outsiders. Xenophobia may have a rational basis to it, such as when it refers to a worker whose job is threatened by the intrusion of migrants whom he labels as outsiders and therefore fearsâ€ (Vorster, 2002). To them, anything unfamiliar to their group or tribe appears to eliminate the very existence that they are protecting over the years. Usually people involve in racial encounters are those clusters of transitory migrants. It cannot be denied that seeking greener pastures is always being pursued. Families leave a difficult situation for a brighter future. These people end up in other countries where tolerance for new residents is unacceptable. One good example of racial conflict can be seen in the land of milk and honey. The United States as a melting pot has to undergo the pains of giving birth to a new nation. Different nationalities have shaped America into what it has become today. Still the danger of racial disturbance is due to erupt anytime. American citizens bring with them the legacy of their mother countries. Equip with the culture and traditions which are entirely new to other people can be distressing or disturbing. The British have contrasting beliefs from the Asians and the Arabs. What is acceptable to one can be a threat to the other. The resurgence of foreign population into developing countries has the governments worrying. Organizations and committees protecting the interest of a nation are tasked to protect its citizens from intruders. In discouraging the continued presence of unwanted migrants, people are resorting to violence to end or to dash cold water on the hopes and dreams of visiting nationalities. The only way that resident citizens see as the effective weapon in stopping immigrants is unleashing the threat of bloodshed. Killings are warranted as warning signs for new aliens and incoming foreigners. The continued entry of thousands of immigrants annually will remain a threat to many people. For instance, the wall being constructed to limit the entry of Mexicans into the American borders can be racially motivated. â€œThe common denominator in racism and ethnicism (or ethnocentrism) is the consciousness of the distinction and tension between us (as the â€œin groupâ€) and them (as the â€œout groupâ€). With the â€œwe feelingâ€, and subsequent solidarity, in oneâ€™s group as the standard, a group (whether ethnic, racial or religious) can judge other groups by the standards and values of their own, producing according to Marger a view of oneâ€™s own group as superior to othersâ€ (Vorster, 2002). Almost always, bloodshed brings a glaring and immediate message of destruction which is so typical of xenophobia. Settlements among conflicts are abrupt and direct to the point. The only problem is lives are being sacrificed. There is no regard for human value if personal interests are at stake. People limit their alternatives to annihilation due to the permanent effect of the action taken. Cultural miscommunication often leads to chaos. Violence is an option rampant in many situations since it is the easiest way to settle conflicts. It puts an end to disagreements permanently at the expense of human lives.